UPM annual report 2015
Revenue recognition Group's sales mainly comprises of sale of energy, pulp, sawn timber, papers, self-adhesive label materials and plywood. Sales are recognised when it is probable that future economic ben- efits will flow to the entity, the associated costs and the amount of reve- nue can be measured reliably, the risks and rewards of ownership have transferred to the buyer and the Group has neither continuing managerial involvement with the goods nor a continuing right to dis- pose of the goods nor effective control of those goods. The timing of revenue recognition is largely dependent on delivery terms. Group terms of delivery are based on Incoterms 2010, the official rules for interpretation of trade terms issued by the International Chamber of Commerce. Revenue is recorded when the product is delivered to the destination point for terms designated Delivered Duty Paid (“DDP”) or Delivered at Place ("DAP"). For sales transactions designated Free on Carrier (“FCA”), Carriage paid to (“CPT”) or Carriage and Insurance Paid to ("CIP"), revenue is recorded at the time of shipment. Revenues from services are recorded when the service has been performed. Sales are recognised net of indirect sales taxes, discounts, rebates and exchange differences on sales under hedge accounting. The costs of distributing products sold are included in costs and expenses. Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive a pay- ment is established. Interest income is recognised by applying the effective interest rate method. Income taxes The Group’s income taxes include current income taxes of Group companies based on taxable profit for the financial period, together with tax adjustments for previous periods and the change of deferred income taxes. Deferred income tax is provided in full, using the liability method, on temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the consolidated financial state- ments. However, deferred income taxes are not recognised if they arise from initial recognition of goodwill; deferred income tax is not accounted for if it arises from initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction other than a business combination that, at the time of the transaction, does not affect either accounting or taxable profit or loss. Deferred income tax is determined using tax rates (and laws) that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the balance sheet date and are expected to apply when the related deferred income tax asset is realised or the deferred income tax liability is settled. Deferred income tax is provided on temporary differences arising on investments in subsidiaries, associated companies and joint ven- tures, except where the timing of the reversal of the temporary differ- ence is controlled by the Group and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future. Deferred income tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that there will be future taxable profits against which the tem- porary differences can be utilised. Special items Certain financial performance indicators have been reported exclud- ing special items. These indicators are non-GAAP measures applied in the Group's financial statements to eliminate the income statement impact of certain significant transactions which are unusual or infre- quent in nature. The Group believes that non-GAAP measures enhance the understanding of the historical performance. Any measures derived with eliminating special items are not measures of financial reporting under the IFRS, and they may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures of other companies. In the UPM Biorefining, UPM Paper Asia and UPM Paper ENA the transaction (income or expense) is considered to be special item, if the impact is one cent (EUR 0.01) after tax per share or more, and if it arises from asset impairments, asset sales or restructuring measures, or relate to changes in legislation or legal proceedings. In other business areas the impact is considered to be significant if it exceeds EUR 1 mil- lion pre-tax.
Intangible assets Intangible assets with finite lives are carried at historical cost less amortisation. Amortisation is based on the following estimated useful lives: Computer software 3–5 years Other intangible assets 5–10 years Goodwill and other intangible assets that are deemed to have an indefinite life are not amortised, but are tested annually for impair- ment. Goodwill Goodwill represents the excess of the consideration transferred, the amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree and the acquisi- tion date fair value of any previous equity interest in the acquiree over the fair value of the identifiable net assets of the acquired subsidiary, associated company or joint arrangement at the date of acquisition. Goodwill on acquisitions of subsidiaries is included in intangible as- sets. Goodwill on acquisitions of associated companies and joint ventures is included in investments in associated companies and joint ventures and is tested for impairment as part of the overall balance. Goodwill is initially recognised as an asset at cost and is subsequently measured at cost less any accumulated impairment losses. Cash-generating units to which goodwill has been allocated are tested for impairment annually, or more frequently when there is an indication that the unit may be impaired. If the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit is less than the carrying amount of the unit, the difference is an impairment loss, which is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the unit and then to other assets of the unit. An impairment loss recognised for goodwill is not reversed in a subsequent period. Research and development Research and development costs are expensed as incurred, except for certain development costs, which are capitalised when it is probable that a development project will generate future economic benefits, and the cost can be measured reliably. Capitalised development costs are amortised on a systematic basis over their expected useful lives, usual- ly not exceeding five years. Computer software Costs associated with maintaining computer software programmes and costs related to the preliminary project phase of internally developed software are recognised as an expense as incurred. Development costs relating to the application development phase of internally developed software are capitalised as intangible assets. Capitalised costs include external direct costs of material and services and an appropriate portion of the software development teams' relevant overheads. Com- puter software development costs recognised as assets are amortised using the straight-line method over their useful lives. Other intangible assets Separately acquired patents, trademarks and licences with a finite useful life are recognised at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment. Contractual customer relationships or other intangible assets acquired in a business combination are recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. Amortisation is calculated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives. Other intangible assets that are deemed to have an indefinite life are not amortised and are tested annually for impairment. Emission rights The Group participates in government schemes aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Emission rights received from governments free of charge are initially recognised as intangible assets based on market value at the date of initial recognition. Emission rights are not amortised but are recognised at an amount not exceeding their market value at the balance sheet date. Government grants are recognised as deferred income in the balance sheet at the same time as emission rights and are recognised in other operating income in the income statement, systematically, over the compliance period to which the
that are highly effective both prospectively and retrospectively are recorded in the income statement under financial items, along with any changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attrib- utable to the hedged risk. The carrying amounts of hedged items and the fair values of hedging instruments are included in interest-bearing assets or liabilities. Derivatives that are designated and qualify as fair value hedges mature at the same time as hedged items. If the hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, the adjustment to the carrying amount of a hedged item for which the effective interest method is used is amortised to profit or loss over the period to maturity. The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognised in other comprehensive income. Amounts deferred in equity are transferred to the income statement and classified as income or expense in the same period as that in which the hedged item affects the income statement (for example, when the forecast external sale to the Group that is hedged takes place). The period when the hedging reserve is released to sales after each derivative has matured is approximately one month. The gain or loss relating to the effective portion of interest rate swaps hedging variable rate borrowings is recognised in the income state- ment within finance costs. When the forecast transaction that is hedged results in the recognition of a non-financial asset (for example, fixed assets) the gains and losses previously deferred in equity are trans- ferred from equity and included in the initial measurement of the cost of the asset. The deferred amounts are ultimately recognised in depre- ciation of fixed assets. When a hedging instrument expires or is sold, or when a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative gain or loss existing in equity at that time remains in equity and is recog- nised when the committed or forecast transaction is ultimately recog- nised in the income statement. However, if a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss that was reported in equity is immediately transferred to the income statement. Hedges of net investments in foreign operations are accounted for similarly to cash flow hedges. The fair value changes of forward exchange contracts that reflect the change in spot exchange rates are recognised in other comprehensive income. Any gain or loss relating to the interest portion of forward exchange contracts is recognised immediately in the income statement under financial items. Gains and losses accumulated in equity are included in the income statement when the foreign operation is partially disposed of or sold. At the inception of the transaction, the Group documents the rela- tionship between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as its risk management objective and strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. This process includes linking all derivatives designated as hedges to specific assets and liabilities or to specific firm commitments or forecast transactions. The Group also documents its assessment, both at the hedge inception and on an on-going basis, as to whether the derivatives that are used in hedging transactions are highly effec- tive in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of hedged items. Certain derivative transactions, while providing effective hedges under the Group Treasury Policy, do not qualify for hedge accounting. Such derivatives are classified held for trading, and changes in the fair value of any derivative instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are recognised immediately in the income statement as other operating income or under financial items. Segment reporting Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the chief operating decision maker. The chief operating decision maker, who is responsible for allocating resources and assessing performance of the operating segments, has been identified as the President and CEO. The accounting policies used in segment reporting are the same as those used in the consolidated accounts, except for that the joint opera- tion Madison Paper Industries (MPI) is presented as subsidiary in UPM Paper ENA reporting. The costs and revenues as well as assets and liabilities are allocated to segments on a consistent basis. All inter-seg- ment sales are based on market prices, and they are eliminated on consolidation.
venture accounting policies have been changed where necessary to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the Group. Equity accounting is discontinued when the carrying amount of the investment in an associated company or interest in a joint venture reaches zero, unless the Group has incurred or guaranteed obligations in respect of the associated company or joint venture. Non-controlling interests The profit or loss attributable to owners of the parent company and non-controlling interests is presented on the face of the income state- ment. Non-controlling interests are presented in the consolidated bal- ance sheet within equity, separately from equity attributable to owners of the parent company. Transactions with non-controlling interests are treated as transac- tions with equity owners of the Group. For purchases from non-control- ling interests, the difference between any consideration paid and the relevant share acquired of the carrying value of net assets of the sub- sidiary is recorded in equity. Gains or losses of disposals to non-con- trolling interests are also recorded in equity. Foreign currency transactions Items included in the financial statements of each Group subsidiary are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the subsidiary operates (“the functional currency”). The consoli- dated financial statements are presented in euros, which is the func- tional and presentation currency of the parent company. Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rate prevailing at the date of transaction. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at year-end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognised in the income statement, except when recognised in other comprehensive income as qualifying cash flow hedges and quali- fying net investment hedges. Foreign exchange differences relating to ordinary business opera- tions of the Group are included in the appropriate line items above operating profit and those relating to financial items are included in a separate line item in the income statement and as a net amount in total finance costs. Income and expenses for each income statement of subsidiaries that have a functional currency different from the Group’s presentation currency are translated into euros at quarterly average exchange rates. Assets and liabilities of subsidiaries for each balance sheet presented are translated at the closing rate at the date of that balance sheet. All resulting translation differences are recognised as a separate compo- nent in other comprehensive income. On consolidation, exchange dif- ferences arising from the translation of net investment in foreign opera- tions and other currency instruments designated as hedges of such investments, are recognised in other comprehensive income. When a foreign entity is partially disposed of, sold or liquidated, translation differences accrued in equity are recognised in the income statement as part of the gain or loss on sale. Derivative financial instruments and hedging activities Derivatives are initially recognised on the balance sheet at fair value and thereafter remeasured at their fair value. The method of recognis- ing the resulting gain or loss is dependent on whether the derivative is designated as a hedging instrument, and on the nature of the item being hedged. On the date a derivative contract is entered into, the Group designates certain derivatives as either hedges of the fair value of a recognised assets or liabilities or a firm commitment (fair value hedge), hedges of a highly probable forecasted transaction or cash flow variability in functional currency (cash flow hedge), or hedges of net investment in a foreign operation (net investment hedge). The fair value of derivative financial instrument is classified as a non-current asset or liability when the remaining maturity is more than 12 months and as a current asset or liability when the remaining maturity is less than 12 months. The Group applies fair value hedge accounting for hedging fixed interest risk on interest-bearing liabilities. Changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as fair value hedges and
UPM Annual Report 2015
UPM Annual Report 2015
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